Fierce Government IT reports the study, conducted by NATO’s Cooperative Cyber Defense Center of Excellence, defined cyber wars through existing international laws.
NATO researchers said cyber attacks are a use of force if the attack results in physical harm to individuals or property.
Attacks that cause inconvenience or irritation to the victim is not a use of force, the study says, according to David Perera’s report.
The think tank also said that cyber war must be judged according to the battle’s severity, immediacy, directness, invasiveness, military character and state involvement.
In February, the Atlantic Council released a report calling on NATO to develop standards and minimum levels of cybersecurity protection.