a server host to retrieve mail messages that the server has received and is holding for the client. Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (Perl) - A script programming language that is similar in syntax to the C language and that includes a number of popular Unix facilities such as sed, awk, and tr.
Access Control - Access Control ensures that resources are only granted to those users who are entitled to them.
Access Control List (ACL) - A mechanism that implements access control for a system resource by listing the identities of the system entities that are permitted to access the resource.
Access Control Service - A security service that provides protection of system resources against unauthorized access. The two basic mechanisms for implementing t his service are ACLs and tickets.
Access Management Access - Management is the maintenance of access information which consists of four tasks: account administration, maintenance, monitoring, and revocation.
Access Matrix - An Access Matrix uses rows to represent subjects and columns to represent objects with privlieges listed in each cell
Access point - A device, such as a WLAN or Internet modem, that enables wireless devices to connect to a network.
Account Harvesting - The process of collecting all of the legitament account names on a system
ACK Piggybacking - The practice of sending an ACK inside another packet going to the same destination
Active Content - Program code embedded in the contents of a web page. When the page is accessed by a web browser, the embedded code is automatically downloaded and executed on the user's workstation
ActiveX - Microsoft-based technology built to link desktop applications to the Internet.
Activity Moniters - Prevents virus infection by monittoring for malicious activity on a system, blocking the activity when possible
Ad hoc network - A network connection established for a single session and does not require a router or a wireless base station.
Address Resolution Protocol - (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address to a physical machine address that is recognized in the local network.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) - Developed by NIST, AES specifies an unclassified, publicly-disclosed or symetric encryption algorithm.
Advanced Persistent Threat - Advanced and normally clandestine cyber-crime category to gain intelligence on an individual, a business, or a government.
Adware - Software package that automatically plays, displays, or downloads ads to a computer, often in the form of a pop-up.
Algorithm - A precise rule or set of rules that specifies how to solve a problem.
Applet - java programs; an application program that uses the client's web browser to provide a user interface.
Application Program Interface - An interface between the operating system and application programs that specifies how the two communicate with each other.
Archive - Contains multiple files and/or folders within a single file, also used for consolidating a group of files into a single package.
ARPANET - Advanced Research Projects Agency Network - Pioneer pack-switched network that was built in the early 1970s under contract to the US Government, let to the development of today's internet, and was decommissioned in June 1990.
Asymmetric Cryptography - Public-key cryptography; A modern branch of cryptography in which the algorithms employ a pair of keys (one public and one private) and use a different component of the pair for different steps of the algorithm.
Asymmetric Warfare - The fact that n small investment, properly leveraged, can yield incredible results.
Autonomous System - One network or serious of networks that are all under one administrative control. An autonomous system is also sometimes referred to as a routing domain. An autonomous system is assigned a globally unique number, sometimes called an ASN ( Autonomous System Number).
Autoresponder - A computer program that automatically sends a certain message or messages in response to incoming email.